2020年新加坡拍賣精品推薦---戰國編鐘

2020-06-03 18:37:43

2020年新加坡拍賣精品推薦

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戰國早期著名青銅樂器,編鐘皆為合范鑄成,鐘舞部和鼓部均有合范痕跡,每組大小相次,形制和紋飾相同。長方形鈕,銑部內斂,于作弧形,枚突起,舞和鐘腔呈扁圓形。鈕、篆和枚間飾三角云紋和卷云紋,枚上鑄旋紋,舞、鉦和鼓部飾變體鳳鳥紋,羽尾勾卷,突出鐘面,鳳羽之內填以細線紋和羽狀重環紋以及圓圈紋。在鐘腔內壁也有模印的卷云紋和鳳鳥紋,紋飾清晰,與鐘面紋飾毫無二致,其細微之處甚于秋毫?!?呂氏春秋 · 古樂》篇載“聽鳳凰之鳴,以別十二律”,兩組編鐘均以鳳鳥紋為飾,當與此有關。經專家鑒定,這兩組編鐘均屬實用器,而且發音準確,音質優美動聽,反映了當時高超的青銅鑄刻技術,具有很高的藝術價值。

鐘是古代中國重要的銅質打擊樂器之一,出現于商代,興起于西周,盛于春秋戰國直至秦漢。若干個音高不同的鐘、磬,有次序地編聯成列,懸掛在之上,稱為編鐘、編磬。懸掛鐘磬的架子,古稱“”。 編鐘從西周開始成組出現,最初為6件一組或8件一組,春秋晚期編鐘成9件一組,戰國時期出現13件、14件一組。編鐘的數量與懸掛方式有嚴格的等級規定,貴族的地位越高,使用編鐘的數量越多、編列組合形式越高。依據禮制規定,天子宮懸(四面排列),諸侯軒懸(三面排列), 大夫判懸(兩面排列),士特懸(一面排列)。近年考古發現的隨葬品豐富的墓葬中常常有幾套編鐘,這與史書記載的“其功大者其樂備”說法相符。這說明,先秦時代青銅鐘具有權力與地位的象征意義。由于銅鐘具有代表權力大小的色彩,統治階級對其非常重視,并專設鐘師以“掌教金奏”訓教樂師,為其服務?!吨芏Y·春官·鐘師》云:“磬師掌教擊磬、擊編鐘,教縵樂、燕樂之鐘磬。凡祭祀,奏縵樂,鐘師掌金奏;凡樂事,以鐘鼓奏九夏……凡祭祀、饗食,奏燕樂;凡射,王奏《騶虞》,諸侯奏《貍首》,卿大夫奏《采》,士奏《采蘩》,掌鼙鼓、縵樂?!庇梢陨衔墨I記載可知,因人們的社會地位不同,所奏的音樂不同,使用的樂器特別是編鐘的規格和等級也不相同。

在禮樂制度的規范下,大量金石樂器被作為主要的隨葬品葬入諸侯、世卿等高級貴族墓葬中?!吨芏Y·春官·笙師》載:“大喪,其樂器,及葬奉而藏之?!蔽髦軙r代的鐘銘文中就記錄了作鐘目的是“用享大宗”。作為隨葬品入葬的樂器,顯然喪失了其演奏樂曲的功能,而是一種獻祭品,表達著生者對逝者的崇敬與追思,同時也反映出了生者的期望,祈求祖先保佑和蔭庇,并期望將這份榮耀傳之后代,為后人帶來福祉?,F有的考古資料表明,隨葬樂器與否及隨葬樂器數量的多少是衡量先秦時期墓主等級的重要標尺之一,也是禮制的物化形式。

青銅編鐘藝術作為我國古代物質文化與精神文化相互結合的產物,是古人杰出智慧的結晶。1978年湖北隨州南郊擂鼓墩戰國時期曾侯乙墓共出土65件編鐘,并刻有錯金銘文,用以標明各鐘的發音音調,比歐洲十二平均律的鍵盤樂器的出現要早近兩千年,被譽為人類文化史上的奇跡。1957年在河南信陽城陽城址春秋戰國墓中出土了我國第一套完整的青銅編鐘,共13枚,發音準確,音色優美,并且用此編鐘演奏的《東方紅》樂曲隨著我國第一顆人造衛星“東方紅一號”唱響太空。我國目前所知最早的編鐘出土于隨州葉家山西周早期墓地,共出土1件鐘和4件編鐘,其時代比曾侯乙墓的編鐘還要早500多年。青銅編鐘已成為先秦社會的文化符號,是中國青銅時代的藝術精品。

In the early Warring States period, the famous bronze musical instruments and the bells were all cast in conformity. The bell dance department and the drum department all had traces of conformity. Each group had the same size and the same shape and decoration. Rectangular button, the milling part is introverted, and it is curved, protruding, and the dance and bell cavity are oblate. Buttons, seals, and pieces are decorated with triangular moiré and curly moiré, cast with spiral patterns, dance, cymbals, and drums are decorated with modified phoenix patterns. Pattern and feather-like heavy ring pattern and circle pattern. On the inner wall of the bell cavity, there are also printed moiré patterns and phoenix patterns. The decoration is clear, which is exactly the same as the decoration on the clock face. "Lü's Spring and Autumn ? Ancient Music" contains "Listen to the sound of the Phoenix and distinguish the twelve laws". Both sets of chimes are decorated with the pattern of the Phoenix Bird. Experts appraised that these two sets of chimes belonged to practical instruments, with accurate pronunciation and beautiful sound quality, reflecting the superb bronze casting and engraving technology at that time and having high artistic value.

Bell is one of the important copper percussion instruments in ancient China. It appeared in the Shang Dynasty, rose in the Western Zhou Dynasty, and flourished in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Qin and Han Dynasties. Several bells and chimes with different pitches are connected in a row in an orderly manner and hung on it, called chimes and chimes. The rack on which Zhong Qing was hung was called "" in ancient times. Chimes began to appear in groups starting from the Western Zhou Dynasty, initially in groups of 6 or in groups of 8, in the late spring and autumn period chimes in groups of 9 and in the Warring States Period, 13 and 14 groups. There are strict grade rules for the number of chimes and suspension methods. The higher the status of the nobility, the more chimes are used and the higher the combination of chimes. According to the rules of etiquette, the celestial uterus is suspended (arranged on four sides), the princes are suspended (arranged on three sides), the doctor judges the suspension (arranged on two sides), and the special suspension (arranged on one side). In recent years, there are often several sets of chimes in the tombs rich in archaeological discoveries, which is consistent with the historical record of "the great meritorious bureaucrats". This shows that the bronze bell in the pre-Qin era had the symbolic meaning of power and status. Because the bronze bell has a color that represents the size of power, the ruling class attaches great importance to it, and specially appointed the bell master to teach the musicians by "handling the golden performance" to serve them. "Zhou Li?Spring Official?Zhong Shi" cloud: "Qing Shi teaches to chime and chime bells, teaches mandarin music, and Yan Yue's bell chime. Where sacrificial rites, jingle music is played, master Zhong takes the gold; Bells and drums play Jiu Xia... Where sacrifices, eating, and Yan music; where shooting, Wang playing "Li Yu", princes playing "Li Shi", Qing doctor playing "cai", scholar playing "cai", palm 陙Drums and manta music." It can be seen from the above documents that, due to different social status of people, the music played is different, and the specifications and grades of the instruments used, especially the bells, are also different.

Under the norms of the ritual and music system, a large number of golden stone musical instruments were buried in the tombs of senior aristocrats such as princes and Shi Qing as the main funerary objects. "Zhou Li?Spring Official?Sheng Shi" contains: "The great funeral, its musical instruments, and burials are hidden." The inscription of the Zhong in the Western Zhou Dynasty recorded that the purpose of making the bell was to "use and enjoy the monk." As a musical instrument buried with funeral objects, it obviously lost its function of playing music, but was a kind of sacrificial offering, expressing the respect and remembrance of the living for the deceased, and also reflecting the expectations of the living, praying for the ancestors to bless He Yinpi, and hope to pass on this glory to future generations and bring benefits to future generations. The existing archaeological data shows that whether or not the number of funeral musical instruments and the number of funeral musical instruments are one of the important scales to measure the level of the main tombs of the pre-Qin period, and also the materialized form of the ritual system.

Bronze chime art, as a product of the combination of ancient Chinese material culture and spiritual culture, is the crystallization of the outstanding wisdom of the ancients. In 1978, a total of 65 chimes were excavated from the tomb of Zenghou Yi during the Warring States Period in Leigudun, southern suburb of Suizhou, Hubei Province, and they were inscribed with wrong gold inscriptions to mark the pronunciation of the bells. Two thousand years, known as a miracle in the history of human culture. In 1957, the first complete set of bronze chimes was unearthed in the Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Tomb in Xinyang City, Xinyang City, Henan Province, with a total of 13 pieces. The pronunciation is accurate and the tone is beautiful. The artificial satellite "Dongfanghong No. 1" sings into space. The earliest known chimes in my country are unearthed in the early Zhou cemetery in Yejiashan, Suizhou. A total of 1 bell and 4 bells were unearthed. Their time is more than 500 years earlier than the bell of Zenghou Yi's tomb. The bronze chime has become the cultural symbol of the pre-Qin society and is a fine art product of the Chinese bronze age.

2020年6月3日

 



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